Main Article Content
Research on cultural exclusion has not kept apace with transformations to rural populations, economy, family structures and community relationships. Cultural exclusion refers to the extent to which people are able or willing to conform to cultural norms and values. We theorise cultural exclusion using the critical human ecological framework and social comparison theory, taking into account period effects, area effects and cohort and/or lifecourse effects. Qualitative case studies in three rural areas of South Wales (United Kingdom) synthesise data from life-history interviews, life-history calendars, documentary sources and focus groups (n = 56). Our findings suggest that cultural exclusion is an issue for rural-dwelling older people, which they describe by temporal self-comparison and group comparisons. The critical human ecological framework provides new insight into the drivers (industrial decline, policy and population change, a shift from collectivism to individualism), and outcomes (sense of belonging, community cohesion) of cultural exclusion experienced by rural-dwelling older people.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License.
Since 2020 the International Journal of Ageing and Later Life uses a Creative Commons: Attribution license, which allows users to distribute the work and to reform or build upon it without the author's permission. Full reference to the author must be given.
Avruch, K. (1998). Culture and Conflict Resolution. Washington DC: United States Institute of Peace Press.
Barnes, M., Blom, A., Cox, K., Lessof, C. & Walker, A. (2006). The Social Exclusion of Older People: Evidence from the First Wave of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA). London: Office of the Deputy Prime Minister, Social Exclusion Unit.
Bengtson, V. L., Elder, G. H. & Putney, N. M. (2012). The life course perspective on ageing: Linked lives, timing, and history. In J. P. Katz, S. Peace & S. Spurr (eds.) Adult Lives: A Life Course Perspective (pp. –17). Bristol: Policy Press.
Berry, J. W. (2006). Contexts of acculturation. In D. L. Sam & J. W. Berry (eds.) The Cambridge Handbook of Acculturation Psychology (pp. 27–42). New York: Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511489891.006
Bowen, E. (1959). Le Pays de Galles. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 26: 1–23.
Boyle, J. P. & Halfacree, K. (1998). Migration into Rural Areas: Theories and Issues. New York: Wiley Press.
Bronfenbrenner, U. (2005). Making Human Beings Human: Bioecological Perspectives of Human Development. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Bronfenbrenner, U. & Morris, P. A. (2006). The bioecological model of human development. In W. Damon & R. M. Lerner (eds.), Handbook of Child Psychology, Vol. 1: Theoretical Models of Human Development (pp. 793–828). New York: Wiley.
Bruner, J. (1982). The language of education. Social Research 49: 835–853.
Burholt, V., Curry, N., Keating, N., & Eales, J. (2014). Connecting with community: The nature of belonging among rural elders. In C. H. Hennessy, R. Means, & V. Burholt (eds.), Countryside connections: Older people, community and place in rural Britain (pp. 95–125). Bristol: Policy Press. https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctt9qgzkj.10
Burholt, V., Dobbs, C. & Victor, C. (2016). Transnational relationships and cultural identity of older migrants. GeroPsych: The Journal of Gerontopsychology and Geriatric Psychiatry 29(2): 57–69. https://doi.org/10.1024/1662-9647/a000143
Burholt, V., Scharf, T. & Walsh, K. (2013). Imagery and imaginary of islander identity: Older people and migration in Irish small-island communities. Journal of Rural Studies 31: 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrurstud.2013.01.007
Cloke, P. J. & Little, J. (1997). Contested Countryside Cultures: Otherness, Marginalisation and Rurality. London: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.1016/0743-0167(92)90050-G
Cloke, P. J. & Milbourne, P. (1992). Deprivation and lifestyles in rural Wales II: Rurality and the cultural dimension. Journal of Rural Studies 8: 359–372.
Commins, P. (2004). Poverty and social exclusion in rural areas: Characteristics, processes and research issues. Sociologia Ruralis 44(1): 60–75. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9523.2004.00262.x
Critchfield, R. (1994). The Villagers, Changed Values, Altered Lives: The Closing of the Rural-Urban Gap. New York: Doubleday.
Curry, N., Burholt, V. & Hennessy, C. (2014). Conceptualising rural connectivities in later life. In C. Hennessy, R. Means & V. Burholt (eds.), Countryside Connections: Older People, Community and Place in Rural Britain (pp. 31–62). Bristol: Policy Press.
Day, G. (1987). The reconstruction of Wales and Appalachia: Development and regional identity. Contemporary Wales 3: 137–160.
Day, G. (2002). Making Sense of Wales: A Sociological Perspective. Cardiff: University of Wales Press.
Day, G. & Fitton, M. (1975). Religion and social status in rural Wales: Buchedd and its lessons for concepts of stratification in community studies. Sociological Review 23: 867–891. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-954X.1975.tb00546.x
Dewilde, C. (2003). A life-course perspective on social exclusion and poverty. The British Journal of Sociology 54(1): 109–128. https://doi.org/10.1080/0007131032000045923
DiMaggio, P. (1994). Culture and economy. In N. J. Smelser & R. Swedberg (eds.), The Handbook of Economic Sociology (pp. 25–57). Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Doheny, S. & Milbourne, P. (2014). Older people, low income and place: Making connections in rural Britain. In C. Hennessy, R. Means & V. Burholt (eds.), Countryside Connections: Older People, Community and Place in Rural Britain (pp. 193–220). Bristol: Policy Press. https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctt9qgzkj.13
Durkheim, E. ( 1997). The Division of Labor in Society. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Dwyer, P. & Hardill, I. (2011). Promoting social inclusion? The impact of village services on the lives of older people living in rural England. Ageing & Society 31(2): 243–264. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0144686X10000851
Emmett, I. (1964). A North Wales Village. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
Festinger, L. (1954). A theory of social comparison processes. Human Relations 7(2): 117–140. https://doi.org/10.1177/001872675400700202
Frankenberg, R. (1957). Village on the Border. London: Cohen and West.
Goode, W. J. (1970). World Revolution and Family Patterns. New York: Free Press.
Guberman, N. & Lavoie, J. P. (2004). Equipe Vies: Framework on Social Exclusion. Montreal, Quebec: Centre de recherche et d’expertise de gerontologie sociale - CAU/CSSS.
Gupta, A. & Ferguson, J. (2001). Culture, power, place: Ethnography at the end of an era. After people and cultures. In, A. Gupta & J. Ferguson (eds.), Exploration in Critical Anthropology (pp. 1–29). Durham and London: Duke University Press.
Gray, A. (2009). The social capital of older people. Ageing & Society 29(1): 5–31. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0144686X08007617
Halfacree, K. (1993). Locality and social representation: Space, discourse and alternative definitions of the rural. Journal of Rural Studies 9(1): 23–37. https://doi.org/10.1016/0743-0167(93)90003-3
Halfacree, K. (1998). Neo-tribes, migration and the post-productivist countryside. In P. Boyle & K. Halfacree (eds.), Migration into Rural Areas: Theories and Issues (pp. 200–214). Chichester: J Wiley & Sons.
Hennessy, C., Means, R. & Burholt, V. (2014). Countryside Connections: Older People, Community and Place in Rural Britain. Bristol, UK: Policy Press. https://doi.org/10.1332/policypress/9781447310303.001.0001
Higgs, P. & Gilleard, C. (2010). Generational conflict, consumption and the ageing welfare state in the United Kingdom. Ageing & Society 30(8): 1439–1451. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0144686X10000425
Hume, I. & Pryce, W. T. R. (1986). The Welsh and Their Country: Selected Readings in the Social Sciences. Llandysul, Wales: Gomer Press in association with the Open University.
Inglehart, R. & Baker, W. E. (2000). Modernization, cultural change, and the persistence of traditional values. American Sociological Review 65(1): 19–51. https://doi.org/10.2307/2657288
Jehoel-Gijsbers, G. & Vrooman, J. (2008). Social Exclusion of the Elderly. Brussels: Centre for European Policy Studies, European Network of Policy Research Institutes.
Jenkins, D. (1960). Aber-porth: A study of a coastal village in south Cardiganshire. In E. Davies & A. Rees (eds.), Welsh Rural Communities. Cardiff: University of Wales Press.
Jones, E. (1952). Some aspects of cultural change in an American-Welsh community. London: Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion.
Keating, N., Eales, J. & Phillips, J. E. (2013). Age-friendly rural communities: Conceptualizing ‘best-fit’. Canadian Journal on Aging-Revue Canadienne Du Vieillissement 32(4): 319–332. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0714980813000408
Keating, N., Kwan, D., Hillcoat-Nalletamby, S. & Burholt, V. (2015). Intergenerational relationships: Experience and attitudes in the new millennium. Available on https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/458697/gs-15-23-future-ageing-intergenerational-relationships-er11.pdf (Accessed: April 15, 2018)
Keating, N. & Phillips, J. (2008). A critical human ecology perspective on rural ageing. In N. Keating (ed.), Rural Ageing: A Good Place to Grow Old? (pp. 1–10). Bristol: Policy Press.
Kneale, D. (2012). Is Social Exclusion Still Important for Older People? London: ILC-UK.
Kroeber, A. L. & Kluckhohn, C. (1952). Culture: A Critical Review of Concepts and Definitions. Cambridge, UK: Peabody Museum.
Lewicka, M. (2008). Place attachment, place identity, and place memory: Restoring the forgotten city past. Journal of Environmental Psychology 28: 209–231. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvp.2008.02.001
Lysgård, H. K. (2008). The ‘actually existing’ cultural policy and culture-led strategies of rural places and small towns. Journal of Rural Studies 44(1): 1–11.
Mee, K. & Wright, S. (2009). Geographies of belonging. Environment and Planning A 41: 772–779. https://doi.org/10.1068/a41364
Milne, A., Hatzidimitriadou, E. & Wiseman, J. (2007). Health and quality of life among older people in rural England: Exploring the impact and efficacy of policy. Journal of Social Policy 36: 477–495. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0047279407001055
Mitchell, T. R., Thompson, L., Petersen, E. & Cronk, R. (1997). Temporal adjustment in the evaluation of events: The “rosy view”. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 33(4): 421–448. https://doi.org/10.1006/jesp.1997.1333
Murdoch, J. & Day, G. (1998). Middle class mobility, rural communities and the politics of exclusion. In P. Boyle & K. Halfacree (eds.), Migration into Rural Areas: Theories and Issues (pp. 186–199). Chichester: J Wiley & Sons.
Rees, A. D. (1950). Life in a Welsh Countryside. Cardiff: University of Wales Press.
Rowles, G. D. (1983). Place and personal identity in old age: Observations from Appalachia. Environmental Psychology 3: 299–313. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0272-4944(83)80033-4
Rudel, T. K. & Hooper, L. (2005). Is the pace of social change accelerating?: Latecomers, common languages, and rapid historical declines in fertility. International Journal of Comparative Sociology 46(4): 275–296. https://doi.org/10.1177/0020715205059204
Ryder, N. B. (1985). The cohort as a concept in the study of social change. In W. M. Mason & S. E. Fienberg (eds.), Cohort Analysis in Social Research: Beyond the Identification Problem (pp. 9–44). New York: Springer New York. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4613-8536-3_2
Scannell, L. & Gifford, R. (2010). Defining place attachment: A tripartite organizing framework. Journal of Environmental Psychology 30: 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvp.2009.09.006
Scharf, T. & Bartlam, B. (2006). Rural Disadvantage. Quality of Life and Disadvantage Amongst Older People - A Pilot Study. London: Commission for Rural Communities.
Scharf, T. & Bartlam, B. (2008). Ageing and social exclusion in rural communities. In N. Keating (ed.), Rural Ageing: A Good Place to Grow Old? (pp. 97–109). Bristol: Policy Press. https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctt9qgmzc.15
Sun, J. & Wang, X. (2010). Value differences between generations in China: A study in Shanghai. Journal of Youth Studies 13(1): 65–81. https://doi.org/10.1080/13676260903173462
Torres, S. (2006). Culture, migration, inequality and ‘periphery’ in a globalized world: Challenges for the study of ethno- and anthropo-gerontology. In J. Baars, D. Dannefer, C. Phillipson & A. Walker (eds.), Ageing, Globalization and Inequality: The New Critical Gerontology (pp. 231–244). Amityville, NY: Baywood.
Torres, S. (2012). International migration patterns and implications for exclusion in old age. In T. Scharf & N. Keating (eds.), From Exclusion to Inclusion in Old Age (pp. 33–50). Bristol: Policy Press. https://doi.org/10.1332/policypress/9781847427731.003.0003
Triandis, H. C. (1995). Individualism and Collectivism. Boulder CO: Westview Press.
Tönnies, F. (1957). Community and Society, translated by C Lewis. New York: Harper Books.
Walsh, K., O Shea, E. & Scharf, T. (2012a). Social Exclusion and Ageing in Diverse Rural Communities: Findings from a Cross-Border Study in Ireland and Northern Ireland. Available on http://www.icsg.ie/sites/www.icsg.ie/files/personfiles/social_exclusion_and_rural_ageing.pdf (Accessed: April 15, 2018)
Walsh, K., O’Shea, E., Scharf, T. & Murray, M. (2012b). Ageing in changing community contexts: Cross-border perspectives from rural Ireland and Northern Ireland. Journal of Rural Studies 28(4): 347–357. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrurstud.2012.01.012
Walsh, K., Scharf, T. & Keating, N. (2017). Social exclusion of older persons: A scoping review and conceptual framework. European Journal of Ageing 14(1): 81–98. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10433-016-0398-8
Welsh Government. (2012). Stats Wales: Welsh Speakers by Local Authority, Gender and Detailed Age Groups, 2011 Census. Cardiff: Welsh Government.
Wenger, G. C. (2001). Myths and realities of ageing in rural Britain. Ageing & Society 21(1): 117–130. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0144686X01008042
Williams, E. & Doyle, R. (2016). Rural Poverty in Wales: Existing Research and Evidence Gaps. Available on http://ppiw.org.uk/files/2016/06/ An-introduction-to-Rural-Poverty.pdf (Accessed: April 15, 2018)
Winter, B. (2017). Social Exclusion among Older People in Rural Areas: A Multilevel and Life-course Perspective. Swansea: Swansea University.
Zelinsky, W. (1973). The Cultural Geography of the United States. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall Inc.