Main Article Content
Social cohesion in neighbourhoods is critical to supporting the rising number of community-dwelling older people. Our aim was thus to identify individual and neighbourhood characteristics influencing social cohesion among older people. We employed a cross-sectional study of 945 (66% response rate) community-dwelling older residents (70+ ) in Rotterdam. To account for the hierarchical structure of the study design, we fitted a hierarchical random-effects model comprising 804 older people (level 1) nested in 72 neighbourhoods (level 2). Multilevel analyses showed that both individual (age, ethnic background, years of residence, income and self-rated health) and neighbourhood characteristics (neighbourhood security) affect social cohesion among community-dwelling older people. Results suggest that policy makers should consider such factors in promoting social cohesion among community-dwelling older people. Policies aimed at improving neighbourhood security may lead to higher levels of social cohesion.
The International Journal of Ageing and Later Life uses a Creative Commons: Attribution Non-commercial license which allows users to distribute the work and to reform or build upon it without the author's permission, for non-commercial purposes. Full reference to the author must be given.
See also LiU E-Press’ Copyright page for further information.
Almeida, J., Kawachi, I., Molnar, B. & Subramanian, S. (2009). A multilevel analysis of social ties and social cohesion among Latinos and their neighbourhoods: Results from Chicago. Journal of Urban Health 86: 745-759. doi: 10.1007/s11524-009-9375-2
Anderson, G. F. & Hussey, P. S. (2000). Population aging: A comparison among industrialized countries. Health Affairs 19: 191-203. doi: 10.1377/hlthaff.19.3.191
Baum, F. & Palmer, C. (2002). ‘Opportunity structures’: Urban landscape, social capital and health promotion in Australia. Health Promotion International 17: 351-361. doi: 10.1093/heapro/17.4.351
Baum, F., Ziersch, A., Zhang, G. & Osborne, K. (2009). Do perceived neighbourhood cohesion and safety contribute to neighbourhood differences in health? Health & Place 15: 925-934. doi: 10.1016/j.healthplace.2009.02.013
Bellair, P. E. (1997). Social interaction and community crime: Examining the importance of neighbour networks. Criminology 35: 577-703. doi: 10.1111/j.1745-9125.1997.tb01235.x
Bridge, G. (1994). Gentrification, class and residence: A reappraisal. Environment and Planning D: Society and Space 12: 31-51. doi: 10.1068/d120031
Browning, C. & Cagney, K. (2002). Neighbourhood structural disadvan-tage, collective efficacy, and self-rated physical health in an urban setting. Journal of Health & Social Behavior 43(4): 383-399. doi: 10.2307/3090233
Buckner, J. C. (1988). The development of an instrument to measure neighbourhood cohesion. American Journal of Community Psychology 16: 771-791. doi: 10.1007/BF00930892
Bursik, R. J., Jr. & Grasmick, H. G. (1993). Neighbourhoods and Crime: The Dimensions of Effective Community Control. New York: Lexington.
Campbell, K. E. & Lee, B. A. (1992). Sources of personal neighbour networks: Social integration, need, or time? Social Forces 70: 77-100.
Cannuscio, C., Block, J. & Kawachi, I. (2003). Social capital and successful aging: The role of senior housing. Annals of Internal Medicine 139: 395-400. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-139-5_Part_2-200309021-00003
Carpiano, R. (2006). Towards a neighbourhood resource based theory of social capital for health: Can Bourdieu and sociology help? Social Science & Medicine 62(1): 165-175. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2005.05.020
Cramm, J. M., van Dijk, H., Lötters, F., van Exel, J. & Nieboer, A. P. (2011). Evaluating an integrated neighbourhood approach to improve the well-being of frail elderly in a Dutch community: A study protocol. BMC Research Notes 4: 532-541. doi: 10.1186/1756-0500-4-532
Cramm, J. M., van Dijk, H. M. & Nieboer, A. P. (2012). The importance of neighbourhood social cohesion and social capital for the well-being of older adults in the community. The Gerontologist 53(1): 142-152. doi: 10.1093/geront/gns052
Cummins, S., Stafford, M., Macintyre, S., Marmot, M. & Ellaway, A. (2005). Neighbourhood environment and its association with self-rated health: Evidence from Scotland and England. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 59(3): 207-213. doi: 10.1136/jech.2003.016147
Curley, A. M. (2010). Relocating the poor: Social capital and neighbour-hood resources. The Journal of Urban Affairs 32(1): 79-103. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9906.2009.00475.x
Davey, J. (2006). ‘‘Ageing in place’’: The views of older homeowners on maintenance, renovation and adaptation. Social Policy Journal of New Zealand 27: 128-141.
De Donder, L., Verte´, D. & Messelis, E. (2005). Fear of crime and the elderly: Key-factors that determine fear of crime among elderly people in West Flanders. Ageing International 30(4): 363-376. doi: 10.1007/s12126-005-1021-z
Dekker, K. & Bolt, G. (2005). Social cohesion in post-war estates in the Netherlands: Differences between socioeconomic and ethnic groups. Urban Studies 42(13): 2447-2770. doi: 10.1080/00420980500380360
DiPasquale, D. & Glaeser, E. (1999). Incentives and social capital. Are home-owners better citizens? Journal of Urban Economics 45(2): 354-384. doi: 10.1006/juec.1998.2098
Egolf, B., Lasker, J., Wolf, S. & Potvin, L. (1992). The Roseto effect: A 50-year comparison of mortality rates. American Journal of Public Health 82: 1089-1092. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.82.8.1089
Eisner, M. & Ribeaud, D. (2007). Conducting a criminological survey in a culturally diverse context: Lessons from the Zurich Project on the social development of children. European Journal of Criminology 4: 271-298. doi: 10.1177/1477370807077183
Ellaway, A., Macintyre, S. & Kearns, A. (2001). Perceptions of place and health in socially contrasting neighbourhoods. Urban Studies 38(12): 2299-2316. doi: 10.1080/00420980120087171
Farrall, S., Gray, E. & Jackson, J. (2007). Theorising the Fear of Crime: The Cultural and Social Significance of Insecurities about Crime. Experience and Expression in the Fear of Crime Working Paper 5. Staffordshire & London: Keele University & London School of Economics.
Farrell, S. J., Aubry, T. & Coulombe, D. (2003). Neighbourhoods and neighbours: Do they contribute to personal well-being? Journal of Community Psychology 32: 9-25. doi: 10.1002/jcop.10082
Feskens, R. C. W., Hox, J., Lensvelt-Mulders, G. & Schmeets, H. (2006). Collecting data among ethnic minorities in an international perspective. Field Methods 18: 284-304. doi: 10.1177/1525822X06288756
Feskens, R. C. W., Hox, J., Lensvelt-Mulders, G. & Schmeets, H. (2007). Nonresponse among ethnic minorities: A multivariate analysis. Journal of Official Statistics 23(3): 387-408.
Flap, H. D. & Völker, B. G. M. (2005). Gemeenschap, informele controle en collectieve kwaden in de buurt [Community, informal control and collective evils in the neighbourhood]. In B. G. M. Völker (ed.), Burgers in de buurt [Citizens in the neighbourhood] (pp. 41-67). Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.
Fone, D., Dunstan, F., Lloyd, K., Williams, G., Watkins, J. & Palmer, S. (2007). Does social cohesion modify the association between area income deprivation and mental health? A multilevel analysis. Interna-tional Journal of Epidemiology 36(2): 338-345. doi: 10.1093/ije/dym004
Forrest, R. (2004). Who Cares About Neighbourhoods? (CNR Paper 26).
Bristol: Centre for Neighbourhood Research.
Forrest, R. & Kearns, A. (2001). Social cohesion, social capital and the neighbourhood. Urban Studies 38(12): 2125-2143. doi: 10.1080/00420980120087081
Gabriel, Z. & Bowling, A. (2004). Quality of life from the perspectives of older people. Ageing & Society 24: 675-691. doi: 10.1017/S0144686X03001582
Gibson, C. L., Zhao, J., Lovrich, N. P. & Gaffney, M. J. (2002). Social integration, individual perceptions of collective efficacy, and fear of crime in three cities. Justice Quarterly 19: 537-556. doi: 10.1080/07418820200095341
Gray, A. (2009). The social capital of older people. Ageing & Society 29: 5-31. doi: 10.1017/S0144686X08007617
Glynn, T. J. (1981). PSOC: Measurement and application. Human Relations 34: 780-818. doi: 10.1177/001872678103400904
Goudy, W. (1990). Community attachment in a rural region. Rural Sociology 55(2): 178-198. doi: 10.1111/j.1549-0831.1990.tb00679.x
Hardy, S. E., Concato, J. & Gill, T. M. (2002). Stressful life events among community-living older persons. Journal of General Internal Medicine 17(11): 832-838. doi: 10.1046/j.1525-1497.2002.20105.x
Heywood, F., Oldman, C. & Means, R. (2002). Housing and Home in Later Life. Buckingham: Open University Press.
Höhn, C. (2005). Demographic challenges for social cohesion: a review andanalysis of the work of the European Population Committee 2001-2004. Belgium: Council for Europe Publishing.
Hooyman, N. R. & Kiyak, H. A. (2008). Social Gerontology: A Multi-disciplinary Perspective. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Horgas, A. L., Wilms, H. & Baltes, M. M. (1998). Daily life in very old age: Everyday activities as expression of successful living. The Gerontologist 38: 556-568. doi: 10.1093/geront/38.5.556
Idler, E. L & Benyamanini, Y. (1997). Self-rated health and mortality: A review of twenty-seven community studies. Journal of Health and Social Behavior 38: 21-37. doi: 10.2307/2955359
Idler, E. L. & Kasl, S. V. (1995). Self-ratings of health: Do they predict change in functional ability? Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences 50: 344-353. doi: 10.1093/geronb/50B.6.S344
Kawachi, I. & Berkman, L. F. (2000). Social cohesion, social capital and health. New York: Oxford University Press. doi: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195138382.001.0001
Kawachi, I. & Berkman, L. F. (2003). Neighbourhoods and Health. New York: Oxford University Press.
Kellaher, L., Peace, S. & Holland, C. (2004). Environment, identity and old age -quality of life or a life of quality? In A. Walker & C. H. Hennessy (eds), Growing Older: Quality of Life in Older Age (pp. 60-80). Maidenhead: Open University Press.
Laurence, J. & Heath, A. (2008). Predictors of community cohesion: Multi-level modelling of the 2005 Citizenship Survey. London: Commu-nities and Local Government.
Lee, J. (1983). Innovative Community Development. Seoul: Institute of Saemaul Undong Studies.
Letki, N. (2008). Does diversity Erode social cohesion? Social capital and race in British neighbourhoods. Political Studies 56: 99-126. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9248.2007.00692.x
Lindström, M., Merlo, J. & Östergren, P-O. (2003). Social capital and sense of insecurity in the neighbourhood: A population-based multilevel analysis in Malmö, Sweden. Social Science & Medicine 56(5): 1111-1120. doi: 10.1016/S0277-9536(02)00114-4
Liu, J. (2011). Functionsof Crimes. Beijing: People’s Publishing House. Lorenc, T., Clayton, S., Neary, D., Whitehead, M., Petticrew, M., Thomson, H., Cummins, S., Sowden, A. & Renton, A. (2012). Crime, fear of crime, environment, and mental health and wellbeing: Mapping review of theories and causal pathways. Health & Place 18: 757-765.
Mair, C., Roux, A. D. & Morenoff, J. (2010). Neighbourhood stressors and social support as predictors of depressive symptoms in the Chicago Community Adult Health Study. Health & Place 16(5): 811-819. doi: 10.1016/j.healthplace.2010.04.006
Markowitz, F. E., Bellair, P. E., Allen, E. L. & Jianhong, H. L. (2001). Extending social disorganization theory: Modelling the relationships between cohesion, disorder, and fear. Criminology 39: 293-320. doi: 10.1111/j.1745-9125.2001.tb00924.x
Maxwell, J. (1996). Social Dimensions of Economic Growth. Eric John Hanson Memorial Lecture Series, Volume 8. Edmonton, Canada: University of Alberta.
McPherson, M., Smith-Loving, L. & Brashears, M. E. (2006). Social isolation in America: Changes in core discussion networks over two decades. American Sociological Review 71: 353-375. doi: 10.1177/000312240607100301
Morris, A., Jamieson, M. & Patulny, R. (2012). Is social mixing of tenures a solution for public housing estates? Evidence Base 1: 1-21.
Morrison, N. (2003). Neighbourhoods and social cohesion: Experiences from Europe. International Planning Studies 8(2): 115-138. doi: 10.1080/13563470305154
Mossey, J. M. & Shapiro, E. (1982). Self-rated health: A predictor of mortality among the elderly. American Journal of Public Health 72: 800-808. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.72.8.800
Mulvaney-Day, N. E., Alegría, M. & Sribney, W. (2007). Social cohesion, social support and health among Latinos in the United States. Social Science & Medicine 64(2): 477-495. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2006.08.030
Musterd, S. & Ostendorf, O. (1998). Urban Segregation and the Welfare State. London and New York: Routledge. doi: 10.4324/9780203448533
Nocon, A. & Pearson, M. (2000). The roles of friends and neighbours in providing support for older people. Ageing & Society 20(3): 341-367. doi: 10.1017/S0144686X99007771
Obst, P., Smith, S. G. & Zinkiewicz, L. (2002). An exploration of sense of community, Part 3: Dimensions and predictors of psychological sense of community in geographical communities. Journal of Community Psychology 30: 119-133. doi: 10.1002/jcop.1054
O’Campo, P., Salmon, C. & Burke, J. (2009). Neighbourhoods and mental well-being: What are the pathways? Health & Place 15(1): 5-68.
Oh, J-H. (2003). Assessing the social bonds of elderly neighbours: The role of length of residence, crime victimization, and perceived disorder. Sociological Inquiry 73(4): 490-510. doi: 10.1111/1475-682X.00068
Oh, J-H. & Kim, S. (2009). Aging, neighbourhood attachment, and fear of crime: Testing reciprocal effects. Journal of Community Psychology 37(1): 21-40. doi: 10.1002/jcop.20269
Paillard-Borg, S., Fratiglioni, L., Winblad, B. & Wang, H. X. (2009). Leisure activities in late life in relation to dementia risk: Principal component analysis. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders 28: 136-144. doi: 10.1159/000235576
Pampalon, R., Hamel, D., De Koninck, M. & Disant, M. J. (2007). Perception of place and health: Differences between neighbourhoods in the Que´bec City region. Social Science & Medicine 65(1): 95-111. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2007.02.044
Peterson, R. D., Krivo, L. J. & Harris, M. A. (2000). Disadvantage and neighbourhood violent crime. Do local institutions matter? Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 37(1): 31-63. doi: 10.1177/0022427800037001002
Philips, D. R., Siu, O.-L, Yeh, A. G.-O. & Cheng, K. H. C. (2005). Ageing and the urban environment. In G. J. Andrews & D. R. Philips (eds), Ageing and Place (pp. 147-163). Abingdon: Routledge.
Poortinga, W., Dunstan, F. D. & Fone, D. L. (2007). Perceptions of the neighbourhood environment and self rated health: A multilevel analysis of the Caerphilly Health and Social Needs Study. BMC Public Health 7: 285. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-7-285
Prezza, M., Amici, M., Roberti, T. & Tedeschi, G. (2001). Sense of community referred to the whole town: Its relations with neighbour-ing, loneliness, life satisfaction, and area of residence. Journal of Community Psychology 29(1): 29-52. doi: 10.1002/1520-6629(200101)29:1<29::AID-JCOP3>3.0.CO;2-C
Putnam, R. (2000). Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community. New York: Simon and Schuster.
Rios, R., Aiken, L. S. & Zautra, A. J. (2012). Neighbourhood contexts and the mediating role of neighbourhood social cohesion on health and psychological distress among Hispanic and Non-Hispanic Residents. Annals of Behavioral Medicine 43(1): 50-61. doi: 10.1007/s12160-011-9306-9
Robinson, D. & Wilkinson, D. (1995). Sense of community in a remote mining town: Validating a neighbourhood cohesion scale. American Journal of Community Psychology 23(1): 137-148. doi: 10.1007/BF02506926
Rosenberg, M. & Everitt, J. (2001). Planning for aging populations: Inside or outside the walls. Progress in planning 56(3): 119-168. doi: 10.1016/S0305-9006(01)00014-9
Ross, C. E., Reynolds, J. R. & Geis, K. J. (2000). The contingent meaning of neighbourhood stability for residents’ psychological well-being. American Sociological Review 65: 581-597. doi: 10.2307/2657384
Russell, C., Hill, B. & Basser, M. (1998). Older people’s lives in the inner city: Hazardous or rewarding? Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health 22: 98-106. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-842X.1998.tb01152.x
Saegert, S. & Winkel, G. (2004). Crime, social capital and com-munity participation. American Journal of Community Psychology 34: 219-233. doi: 10.1007/s10464-004-7416-2
Sampson, R. J. (1988). Local friendship ties and community attachment in mass society: A multilevel systemic model. American Sociological Review 53: 766-779. doi: 10.2307/2095822
Sampson, R. J. (1991). Linking the micro-and macrolevel dimensions of community social organization. Social Forces 70(1): 43-64.
Sampson, R. J. & Raudenbush, S. W. (1999). Systematic social observation of public spaces: A new look at disorder in urban neighbourhoods. American Journal of Sociology 105: 603-651. doi: 10.1086/210356
Scharf, T., Phillipson, C. & Smith, A. E. (2004). Poverty and social exclusion: Growing older in deprived urban neighbourhoods. In A. Walker & C. H. Hennessy (eds), Growing Older: Quality of Life in Old Age (pp. 81-106). Maidenhead: Open University Press.
Shaw, B. A., Krause, N., Liang, J. & Bennett, J. (2007). Tracking changes in social relations throughout late life. Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences 62: 90-99. doi: 10.1093/geronb/62.2.S90
Sixsmith, A. & Sixsmith, J. (2008). Ageing in place in the United Kingdom. Ageing International 32: 3. doi: 10.1007/s12126-008-9019-y
Skjaeveland, O. & Garling, T. (1997). Effects of interactional space on neighbouring. Journal of Environmental Psychology 17: 181-198. doi: 10.1006/jevp.1997.0054
Social Exclusion Unit. (2001). National Strategy for Neighbourhood Renewal. London: Cabinet Office.
Thang, L. L. (2001). Generations in touch: Linking the old and young in a Tokyo neighbourhood. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Van Bergeijk, E., Bolt, G. & Van Kempen, R. (2008). Social cohesion in deprived neighbourhoods in the Netherlands: The effect of the use of neighbourhood facilities. Housing Studies Association Conference, York, UK, 2-4 April 2008.
Völker, B., Flap, H. & Lindenberg, S. (2007). When are neighbourhoods communities? Community in Dutch neighbourhoods. European Socio-logical Review 23(1): 99-114. doi: 10.1093/esr/jcl022
Welsh, B. & Farrington, D. (2008). Effects of improved street lighting on crime. Campbell Systematic Reviews 13: 1-51.
Wiles, J. (2005). Home as a new site of care provision and consumption. In G. J. Andrews & D. R. Phillips (eds), Ageing and Place: Perspectives, Policy, Practice (pp. 79-97). New York: Routledge.
Wilkinson, D. (2008). Individual and community factors affecting psycho-logical sense of community, attraction, and neighbouring in rural communities. Canadian Review of Sociology 45(3): 305-329. doi: 10.1111/j.1755-618X.2008.00013.x
Wolf, S. & Bruhn, J. G. (1993). The power of clan: The influence of human relationships on heart disease. New Jersey: Transaction.
Yang, M.-J., Yang, M.-S., Shih, C.-H. & Kawachi, I. (2002). Development and validation of an instrument to measure perceived neighbourhood quality in Taiwan. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health 56: 492-496. doi: 10.1136/jech.56.7.492
Ziersch, A. M., Baum, F. E., MacDougall, C. & Putland, C. (2005). Neighbourhood life and social capital: The implications for health. Social Science and Medicine 60(1): 71-86. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2004.04.027