Embodying the ideal carer

Main Article Content

Bernhard Weicht


Demographic developments have caused challenges to national arrangements for elderly care. In Austria one answer has been the employment of migrant carers in the home of people with care needs. The literature on migrant carers has largely discussed economic considerations and specific national welfare state arrangements which underlie the employment of carers. This article focuses on the relation between the moral construction of migrant carers in the family-oriented welfare system of Austria and the ideological understanding of ’’ideal’’ care in society.Using Critical Discourse Analysis the discourse is analysed in newspapers and through focus groups. Migrant carers are constructed as fictive kin, representing an approximation of the idealised family carer. Furthermore, investigating the way people think and talk about migrant carers enables a better understanding of what an idealised notion of care entails and how it represents the ideological construction of the welfare state. It will be argued that the migrant carer is constructed in the public discourse as a replacement for a nostalgically imagined ideal care relationship.


Metrics Loading ...

Article Details

Articles in a Special Issue


Abrahamson, P. (1999). The welfare modelling business. Social Policy & Administration 33(4): 394–415. doi:10.1111/1467-9515.00160 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9515.00160

Ackers, L. (2004). Citizenship, migration and the valuation of care in the European Union. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 30(2): 373–396. doi:10.1080/1369183042000200759 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/1369183042000200759

Akalin, A. (2007). Hired as a caregiver, demanded as a housewife – becoming a migrant domestic worker in Turkey. European Journal of Women’s Studies 14(3): 209–225. doi:10.1177/1350506807079011 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1350506807079011

Aldridge, M. (1994). Making Social Work News. London: Routledge.

Anderson, B. (1997). Servants and slaves: Europe’s domestic workers. Race & Class 39(1): 37–49. doi:10.1177/030639689703900104 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/030639689703900104

Anderson, B. (1999). Overseas domestic workers in the European Union: Invisible women. In J. Henshall Momsen (ed.), Gender, Migration, and Domestic Services (pp. 113–130). London: Routledge. doi:10.4324/9780203452509_chapter_7 DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203452509_chapter_7

Anderson, B. (2000). Doing the Dirty Work? The Global Politics of Domestic Labour. London: Zed Books.

Andrews, G. J. & Phillips, D. R (eds.). (2005). Ageing and Place: Perspectives, Policy, Practice. Abingdon: Routledge.

Arat-Koc, S. (1997). From ‘Mothers of the Nation’ to migrant workers. In A. Bakan & D. Stasiulis (eds.), Not One of the Family: Foreign Domestic Workers in Canada (pp. 53–79). Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Arts, W. & Gelissen, J. (2002). Three worlds of welfare capitalism or more? Journal of European Social Policy 12(2): 137–158. doi:10.1177/0952872002012002114 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0952872002012002114

Badelt, C., Holzmann-Jenkins, A., Matul, C. & Österle, A. (1997). Analyse der Auswirkungen des Pflegevorsorgesystems [Analysis of the Results of the Care System]. Research report on behalf of the Bundesministerium für Arbeit, Gesundheit und Soziales, Vienna.

Badelt, C. & .O ¨ sterle, A. (2001). Grundzüge der Sozialpolitik: Spezieller Teil, Sozialpolitik in O¨ sterreich [Basics of Social Policy: Specific Part, Social Policy in Austria] (2nd ed.). Vienna: Manzsche Verlags- und Universita¨tsbuchhandlung.

Bakan, A. & Stasiulis, D. (1997). Introduction. In A. Bakan & D. Stasiulis (eds.), Not One of the Family: Foreign Domestic Workers in Canada (pp. 3– 28). Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Barker, J. C. (2002). Neighbors, friends, and other Nonkin caregivers of community-living dependent elders. Journal of Gerontology 57B(3): 158–167.

Baxter, J., Hewitt, B. & Western, M. (2009). Who uses paid domestic labor in Australia? Choice and constraint in hiring household help. Feminist Economics 15(1): 1–26. doi:10.1080/13545700802248989 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/13545700802248989

Bednarek, M. (2006). Evaluation in Media Discourse: Analysis of a Newspaper Corpus. London: Continuum.

Bettio, F., Simonazzi, A. & Villa, P. (2006). Change in care regimes and female migration: The ‘care drain’ in the Mediterranean. Journal of European Social Policy 16(3): 271–285. doi:10.1177/0958928706065598 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0958928706065598

Bittman, M., Matheson, G. & Meagher, G. (1999). The changing boundary between home and market: Australian trends in outsourcing domestic labour. Work, Employment and Society 13: 249–273.

Bloor, M., Frankland, J., Thomas, M. & Robson, K. (2001). Focus Groups in Social Research. London: Sage Publications. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4135/9781849209175

Bonifacio, G. L. A. T. (2008). I Care for You, Who Cares for Me? Transnational Services of Filipino Live-in Caregivers in Canada. Asian Women 24(1): 25–50.

BPGG. (1993). Gesamte Rechtsvorschrift für Bundespflegegeldgesetz [Complete Legal Regulations for the Federal Law for Care Cash Benefits]. Available on http://www.ris.bka.gv.at/GeltendeFassung.wxe?Abfrage_Bundes normen&Gesetzesnummer_10008859 (Accessed: November 15, 2009).

Brijnath, B. (2009). Familial bonds and boarding passes: Understanding caregiving in a transnational context. Identities – Global studies in Culture and Power 16(1): 83–101.

Brush, B. L. & Vasupuram, R. (2006). Nurses, nannies and caring work: importation, visibility and marketability. Nursing Inquiry 13(3): 181–185. doi:10.1111/j.1440-1800.2006.00320.x PMid:16918785 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-1800.2006.00320.x

Bryman, A. (2004). Social Research Methods (2nd ed). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Cangiano, A., Shutes, I., Spencer, S. & Leeson, G. (2009). Migrant Care Workers in Ageing Societies: Research Findings in the United Kingdom. Executive Summary. Oxford: COMPAS.

Chang, K. A. & Ling, L. H. M. (2000). Globalization and its intimate other: Filipina domestic workers in Hong Kong. In M. H. Marchand & A. S. Runyan (eds.), Gender and Global Restructuring (pp. 27–43). New York: Routledge.

Cheng, S. J. (1996). Migrant women domestic workers in Hong Kong, Singapore and Taiwan: A comparative analysis. Asian Pacific Migration Journal 5(1): 139–152. PMid:12291761 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/011719689600500107

Chouliaraki, L. & Fairclough, N. (1999). Discourse in Late Modernity: Rethinking Critical Discourse Analysis. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.

Conradson, D. (2003). Geographies of care: Spaces, practices, experiences. Social & Cultural Geography 4(4): 451–454. doi:10.1080/1464936032000137894 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/1464936032000137894

Coontz, S. (1992). The Way We Never Were: American Families and the Nostalgia Trap. New York: Basic Books.

Cox, R. (1999). The role of ethnicity in shaping the domestic employment sector in Britain. In J. Henshall Momsen (ed.), Gender, Migration, and Domestic Services (pp. 131–144). London: Routledge. doi:10.4324/9780203452509_chapter_8 DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203452509_chapter_8

Coyle, A. (2007). Resistance, regulation and rights: The changing status of polish women’s migration and work in the ‘New’ Europe. European Journal of Women’s Studies 14(1): 37–50. doi:10.1177/1350506807072316 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1350506807072316

Daly, M. & Lewis, J. (2000). The concept of social care and the analysis of contemporary welfare states. British Journal of Sociology 51(2): 281–298. doi:10.1111/j.1468-4446.2000.00281.x PMid:10905001 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-4446.2000.00281.x

Da Roit, B. (2007). Changing intergenerational solidarities within families in a Mediterranean welfare state: Elderly care in Italy. Current Sociology 55(2): 251–269. doi:10.1177/0011392107073306 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0011392107073306

Da Roit, B., Bihan, B. & .O ¨ sterle, A. (2007). Long-term care policies in Italy, Austria and France: Variations in cash-for-care schemes. Social Policy & Administration 41(6): 653–671. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9515.2007.00577.x DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9515.2007.00577.x

Davis, F. (1979). Yearning for Yesterday: A Sociology of Nostalgia. New York: The Free Press.

Degiuli, F. (2007). A job with no boundaries. European Journal of Women’s Studies 14(3): 193–207. doi:10.1177/1350506807079010 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1350506807079010

Doyle, M. & Timonen, V. (2009). The different faces of care work: Understanding the experiences of the multi-cultural care workforce. Ageing & Society 29: 337–350. doi:10.1017/S0144686X08007708 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0144686X08007708

Dyer, S., McDowell, L. & Batnitzky, A. (2008). Emotional labour/body work: The caring labours of migrants in the UK’s National Health Service. Geoforum 39: 2030–2038. doi:10.1016/j.geoforum.2008.08.005 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoforum.2008.08.005

Escriva, A. & Skinner, E. (2008). Domestic work and transnational care chains in Spain. In H. Lutz (ed.), Migration and Domestic Work: A European Perspective on a Global Theme (pp. 113–126). Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing.

Fine, M. D. & Mitchell, A. (2007). Review article: Immigration and the aged care workforce in Australia: Meeting the deficit. Australasian Journal of Ageing 26(4): 157–161. doi:10.1111/j.1741-6612.2007.00259.x DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-6612.2007.00259.x

Flaquer, L. & Escobedo, A. (2009). The metamorphosis of informal work in Spain: Family solidarity, female immigration and development of social rights. In B. Pfau-Effinger, L. Flaquer & P. Jensen (eds.), Formal and Informal Work in Europe. The Hidden Work Regime. London: Routledge.

Gendera, S. (in press). Gaining an insight into central European transnational care spaces: The case of migrant live-in care workers in Austria. In M. Bommes & G. Sciortino (eds.), Irregular Migration in Europe: Empirical Research and Structural Implications. IMISCOE Research Series. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.

Gerling, V. (2003). Die britische und deutsche Antwort der Altenhilfe auf zugewanderte Senioren/innen im Vergleich [The British and the German Elderly Care Answers to Immigrated Senior Citizens in a Comparison]. Zeitschrift fu¨ r Gerontologie und Geriatrie 36(3): 216–222.

Glucksmann, M. & Lyon, D. (2006). Configurations of care work: Paid and unpaid elder care in Italy and the Netherlands. Sociological Research Online 11(2). Available on http://www.socresonline.org.uk/11/2/glucksmann.html (Accessed: August 10, 2009).

Haidinger, B. (2008). Contingencies among households: Gendered division of labour and transnational household organization – the case of Ukrainians in Austria. In H. Lutz (ed.), Migration and Domestic Work: A European Perspective on a Global Theme (pp. 127–144). Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing.

Hammer, E. & .Österle, A. (2003). Welfare state policy and informal longterm care giving in Austria: Old gender divisions and new stratification processes among women. Journal of Social Policy 32(1): 37–53. doi:10.1017/S0047279402006888 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0047279402006888

Henshall Momsen, J (ed.). (1999). Gender, Migration, and Domestic Services. London: Routledge.

Hillmann, F. (2005). Migrants’ care work in private households, or: The Strength of bilocal and transnational ties as a last(ing) resource in global migration. In B. Pfau-Effinger & B. Geissler (eds.), Care Arrangements in Europe – Variations and Change. Bristol: Policy Press.

Hondagneu-Sotelo, P. (2007). Doméstica: Immigrant Workers Cleaning and Caring in the Shadows of Affluence. London: University of California Press.

Honneth, A. (1995). The Struggle for Recognition: The Moral Grammar of Social Conflicts. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Hugo, G. (2009). Care worker migration, Australia and development. Population Space and Place 15(2): 189–203. doi:10.1002/psp.534 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/psp.534

Huh, R. K. (2008). Politics of meaning: Care work and migrant women. Asian Journal of Women’s Studies 14(3): 37–60.

Jandl, M., Hollomey, C. & Stepien, A. (2007). Migration and Irregular Work in Austria: Results of a Delphi-Study. Geneva: ILO.

Karner, T. C. (1998). Professional caring: Homecare workers as fictive kin. Journal of Ageing Studies 12(1): 69–82. doi:10.1016/S0890-4065(98)90021-4 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0890-4065(98)90021-4

Kontos, P. C. (1998). Resisting institutionalization: Constructing old age and negotiating home. Journal of Ageing Studies 12(2): 167–184. doi:10.1016/S0890-4065(98)90013-5 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0890-4065(98)90013-5

Kreimer, M. (2006). Developments in Austrian care arrangements: Women between free choice and informal care. In C. Glendinning & P. A. Kemp (eds.), Cash and Care: Policy Challenges in the Welfare State (pp. 141–154). Bristol: Policy Press.

Krzyżanowski, M. (2008). Analyzing focus group discussions. In R.Wodak & M. Krzyżanowski (eds.), Qualitative Discourse Analysis in the Social Sciences (pp. 162–181). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Lan, P.-C. (2003). Maid or madam? Filipina migrant workers and the continuity of domestic labor. Gender & Society 17(2): 187–208. doi:10.1177/0891243202250730 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0891243202250730

Lewis, J. (1992). Gender and the development of welfare regimes. Journal of European Social Policy 3: 159–173. doi:10.1177/095892879200200301 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/095892879200200301

Lorenzo, F. M. E., Galvez-Tan, J., Icamina, K. & Javier, L. (2007). Nurse migration from a source country perspective: Philippine country case study. Health Service Research 42(3): 1406–1418. doi:10.1111/j.1475-6773.2007.00716.x PMid:17489922 PMCid:1955369 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-6773.2007.00716.x

Lutz, H. (1997). The Limits of European-ness: Immigrant women in Fortress Europe. Feminist Review 57(1): 93–111. doi:10.1080/014177897339678 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/014177897339678

Lutz, H. (2002). At your service madam! The globalization of domestic service. Feminist Review 70: 89–104. doi:10.1057/palgrave/fr/9400004 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1057/palgrave/fr/9400004

Lutz, H. (2004). Life in the twilight zone: Migration, transnationality and gender in the private household. Journal of Contemporary European Studies 12(1): 47–55. doi:10.1080/1460846042000207114 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/1460846042000207114

Lutz, H (ed.). (2008). Migration and Domestic Work: A European Perspective on a Global Theme. Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing.

Lynch, K. (2007). Love labour as a distinct and non-commodifiable form of care labour. The Sociological Review 55(3): 550–570. doi:10.1111/j.1467-954X.2007.00714.x DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-954X.2007.00714.x

Lyon, D. & Glucksmann, M. (2008). Comparative configurations of care work across Europe. Sociology 42(1): 101–118. doi:10.1177/0038038507084827 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0038038507084827

Mattingly, D. J. (1999). Making Maids: United States immigration policy and immigrant domestic workers. In J. Henshall Momsen (ed.), Gender, Migration, and Domestic Services (pp. 61–78). London: Routledge. doi:10.4324/9780203452509_chapter_4 DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203452509_chapter_4

Mautner, G. (2008). Analyzing newspapers, magazines and other print media. In R. Wodak & M. Krzyz˙anowski (eds.), Qualitative Discourse Analysis in the Social Sciences (pp. 30–53). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

May, T. (2001). Social Research: Issues, Methods and process (3rd ed.). Buckingham: Open University Press.

McGregor, J. (2007). ‘Joining the BBC (British Bottom Cleaners)’: Zimbabwean migrants and the UK care industry. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 33(5): 801–824. doi:10.1080/13691830701359249 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/13691830701359249

McLaughlin, E. & Glendinning, C. (1994). Paying for care in Europe: Is there a feminist approach? In L. Hantrais & S. Mangen (eds.), Concepts and Contexts in International Comparisons: Family Policy and the Welfare of Women (pp. 52–69). Loughborough: University of Loughborough.

Mehta, M. & Thang, L. (2008). Visible and blurred boundaries in familial care: The dynamics of multigenerational care in Singapore. In A. Martin-Matthews & J. E. Phillips (eds.), Aging and Caring at the Intersection of Work and Home Life: Blurring the Boundaries (pp. 43–83). New York: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Meyer, M. (2001). Between theory, method, and politics: positioning of the approaches to CDA. In R. Wodak & M. Meyer (eds.), Methods of Critical Discourse Analysis (pp. 14–31). London: Sage Publications.

Milligan, C. (2003). Location or dis-location? Towards a conceptualization of people and place in the care-giving experience. Social & Cultural Geography 4(4): 455–470. doi:10.1080/1464936032000137902 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/1464936032000137902

Orloff, A. S. (1993). Gender and the social rights of citizenship: The comparative analysis of gender relations and welfare states. American Sociological Review 58(3): 303–327. doi:10.2307/2095903 DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/2095903

Österle, A. & Hammer, E. (2004). Zur zukünftigen Betreuung und Pflege älterer Menschen: Rahmenbedingungen – Politikansätze – Entwicklungsperspektiven [On Future Support and Care of Elderly People: General Conditions – Political Approaches – Perspecives for Develoment]. On behalf of Caritas Österreich. Vienna: Kardinal König Akademie.

Österle, A. & Hammer, E. (2006). Care allowances and the formalisation of care arrangements: The Austrian experience. In C. Ungerson & S. Yeandle (eds.), Commodified Care Work in Developed Welfare States (pp.13–31). London: Palgrave Macmillan.

Österreichische Auflagenkontrolle (2008). Auflagenliste 1. Halbjahr 2008 [List of Circulations]. Available on http://www.oeak.at/content/intern/Auflagenlisten/OEAK_2008_1HJ_KORR.pdf (Accessed: July 25, 2009).

Parks, J. A. (2002). No Place Like Home? Feminist Ethics and Home Health Care. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

Parreñas, R. S. (2000). Migrant filipina domestic workers and the international division of reproductive labor. Gender & Society 14(4): 560–581. doi:10.1177/089124300014004005 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/089124300014004005

Parreñas, R. S. (2001). Servants of Globalization: Women, Migration and Domestic Work. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Pfau-Effinger, B. (2005). Welfare state policies and development of care arrangements. European Societies 7(2): 321–347. doi:10.1080/14616690500083592 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/14616690500083592

Pfau-Effinger, B. & Geissler, B. (eds.). (2005). Care Arrangements in Europe – Variations and Change. Bristol: Policy Press.

Phillips, J. (2007). Care. Key Concepts. Cambridge: Polity Press. Reah, D. (2002). The Language of Newspapers (2nd ed.). London: Routledge.

Reisigl, M. & Wodak, R. (2001). Discourse and Discrimination: Rhetorics of Racism and Anti-Semitism. London: Routledge.

Richardson, J. E. (2007). Analysing Newspapers: An Approach from Critical Discourse Analysis. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-230-20968-8

Roseneil, S. & Budgeon, S. (2004). Cultures of intimacy and care beyond ‘the family’: Personal life and social change in the early 21st century. Current Sociology 52(2): 135–159. doi:10.1177/0011392104041798 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0011392104041798

Sainsbury, D (ed.). (1994). Gendering Welfare States. London: Sage Publications.

Sassen, S. (2003). The feminisation of survival: Alternative global circuits. In M. Morokvasic-Mu¨ ller, U. Erel & K. Shinozaki (eds.), Crossing Borders and Shifting Boundaries. Gender on the Move (pp. 59–78). Opladen: Leske & Budrich.

Scrinzi, F. (2008). Migrations and the restructuring of the welfare state in Italy: Change and continuity in the domestic work sector. In H. Lutz (ed.), Migration and Domestic Work: A European Perspective on a Global Theme (pp. 29–42). Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing.

Scruggs, L. & Allan, J. (2006). Welfare-state decommodification in 18 OECD countries: a replication and revision. Journal of European Social Policy 16(1): 55–72. doi:10.1177/0958928706059833 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0958928706059833

Simonazzi, A. (2009). Care regimes and national employment models. Cambridge Journal of Economics 33: 211–232. doi:10.1093/cje/ben043 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/cje/ben043

Strell, M. & Duncan, S. (2001). Lone motherhood, ideal type care regimes and the case of Austria. Journal of European Social Policy 11(2): 149–164. doi:10.1177/095892870101100204 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/095892870101100204

Ungerson, C. (2000). Thinking about the production and consumption of long-term care in Britain: Does gender still matter? Journal of Social Policy 29(4): 623–643. doi:10.1017/S0047279400006061 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0047279400006061

Ungerson, C. (2003). Commodified care work in European labour markets. European Societies 5(4): 377–396. doi:10.1080/1461669032000127651 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/1461669032000127651

Ungerson, C. (2004). Whose empowerment and independence? A crossnational perspective on ‘cash for care’ schemes. Ageing & Society 24: 189–212. doi:10.1017/S0144686X03001508 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0144686X03001508

van der Geest, S., Mul, A. & Vermeulen, H. (2004). Linkages between migration and the care of frail older people: Observations from Greece, Ghana and The Netherlands. Ageing & Society 24: 431–450. doi:10.1017/S0144686X04002302 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0144686X04002302

van Dijk, T. A. (2001). Multidisciplinary CDA: A plea for diversity. In R. Wodak & M. Meyer (eds.), Methods of Critical Discourse Analysis (pp. 95–120). London: Sage Publications.

van Leeuwen, T. (1996). The representation of social actors. In C. R. Caldas-Coulthard & M. Coulthard (eds.), Texts and Practices: Readings in Critical Discourse Analysis (pp. 32–70). London: Routledge.

von Kondratowitz, H.-J. (2005). Die Beschäftigung von Migranten/innen in der Pflege [The Employment of Migrants in the Care Sector]. Zeitschrift für Gerontologie und Geriatrie 38(6): 417–423. doi:10.1007/s00391-005-0348-0 PMid:16362557 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00391-005-0348-0

Weicht, B. (forthcoming). Loving care by strangers: Crossing the boundaries of closeness, love and foreignness. In A. Cervantes-Carson (ed.), Persons, Intimacy & Love: Probing the boundaries. e-book. Oxford: Inter-Disciplinary Press.

Weiss, G. & Wodak, R. (2003). Introduction: Theory, interdisciplinarity and critical discourse analysis. In G. Weiss & R. Wodak (eds.), Critical Discourse Analysis: Theory and Interdisciplinarity (pp. 1–32). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Williams, F. (2004). Rethinking Families. ESRC CAVA Research Group. London: Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation.

Williams, F. & Gavenas, A. (2008). The intersection of childcare regimes and migration regimes: A three country study. In H. Lutz (ed.), Migration and Domestic Work: A European Perspective on a Global Theme (pp. 13–28). Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing.

Wodak, R. (2001a). What CDA is about – a summery of its history, important concepts and its developments. In R. Wodak & M. Meyer (eds.), Methods of Critical Discourse Analysis (pp. 1–13). London: Sage Publications. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4135/9780857028020.n1

Wodak, R. (2001b). The discourse-historical approach. In R. Wodak & M. Meyer (eds.), Methods of Critical Discourse Analysis (pp. 63–94). London: Sage Publications. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4135/9780857028020.n4

Wodak, R. (2008). Introduction: Discourse Studies – important concepts and terms. In R. Wodak & M. Krzyz˙anowski (eds.), Qualitative Discourse Analysis in the Social Sciences (pp. 1–29). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Yeates, N. (2004). A dialogue with ‘global care chain’ analysis: nurse migration in the Irish context. Feminist Review 77: 79–95. doi:10.1057/palgrave.fr.9400157 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1057/palgrave.fr.9400157

Yeoh, S. A., Huang, S. & Gonzalez, J. (1999). Migrant female domestic workers: Debating the economic, social and political impacts in Singapore. International Migration Review 33(1): 114–136. doi:10.2307/2547324 PMid:12294976 DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/2547324

Zelitzer, V. A. (2005). The Purchase of Intimacy. Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press.

Zimmerman, M. K., Litt, J. S. & Bose, C. E. (2006). Global Dimensions of Gender and Carework. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.